Veillonella

Veillonella:

• Abundance associated with higher bacterial gene richness in the gut • Imbalances noted in IBS, although findings are mixed: some studies reported higher concentrations in IBS, in IBS-C, IBS-D; others have reported lower counts or lower counts weakly correlating with greater symptom severity • Found less abundant in autistic children compared to neurotypical children

Source: https://www.gdx.net/core/interpretive-guides/GI-Effects-IG.pdf

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Ruminococcus

Ruminococcus:

• Abundance associated with low bacterial gene richness in the gut • Human studies have reported that Ruminococcus spp. tend to be more abundant in IBD; active UC, active CD, and ileal CD • Levels are variable in IBS, depending on IBS subtype, with some researchers reporting increased concentrations and some finding decreased amounts • May be more prevalent in autism

Source: https://www.gdx.net/core/interpretive-guides/GI-Effects-IG.pdf

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Coprococcus eutactus

Coprococcus eutactus:

• Abundance associated with greater bacterial gene richness in the gut • Coprococcus may be less prevalent in autistic children compared to neurotypical children; may be result of intestinal disaccharidase deficiencies common in autism • In IBS, reduced abundance reported (in association with elevated Ruminococcus spp.)

Source: https://www.gdx.net/core/interpretive-guides/GI-Effects-IG.pdf

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B. vulgatus

B. vulgatus is associated with:

• Bacteroides spp. associated with lower bacterial gene richness in the gut• Lower levels of B. vulgatus have been seen in IBS patients in comparison to healthy controls • Low relative proportions of B. vulgatus, along with high concentrations of Lactobacillus spp. observed in the microbiota of obese children when compared to lean; B. vulgatus also found under-represented in microbiota of type-2 diabetics • B. vulgatus found to be present in significantly higher numbers in stools of severely autistic children when compared to controls • While increased B. vulgatus prevalence was associated with the genotype of infants at high risk of celiac disease development, another study found that B. vulgatus was more frequently detected in controls than in patients with treated celiac disease (p<0.01)

Source – https://www.gdx.net/core/interpretive-guides/GI-Effects-IG.pdf

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Bacteroides-Prevotella

Features of Bacteroides-Prevotella include:

• Abundance associated with lower bacterial gene richness in the gut • Reduced patterns of Bacteroides reported in IBS and ulcerative colitis; conversely, other researchers found increased levels in IBD • When compared with fibromyalgia patients, early RA patients showed less Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas • Higher levels associated with excessive weight gain in pregnancy and in obesity • Other researchers reported lower Bacteroides (as part of Bacteroides-Prevotella group) in obese subjects compared to lean • Ratio of Bacteroides-Prevotella group to other gut bacteria correlated positively and significantly with plasma glucose; • In contrast, some have reported half the Bacteroides abundance in T2DM compared to those with normal glucose tolerance or those with pre-diabetes

Source – https://www.gdx.net/core/interpretive-guides/GI-Effects-IG.pdf

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Bifidobacterium

Bifidobacterium is a genus of gram-positive, nonmotile, often branched anaerobic bacteria. They are ubiquitous inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tract, vagina and mouth (B. dentium) of mammals, including humans. Bifidobacteria are one of the major genera of bacteria that make up the colon flora in mammals. Some bifidobacteria are used as probiotics. (source)

According to a Bangladeshi microbiota study published last month, poor vaccine efficacy is associated with systemic inflammation due to gut dysbiosis. Bifidobacteria were found a key factor in improving vaccine responsiveness. There are many known strains of bifidobacteria, some considered better than others. Bifidobacteria levels in the USA vary widely among individuals. Studies report much lower levels of bifidobacteria in children with autism. (source)

• Abundance associated with higher bacterial gene richness in the gut • Modulates local and systemic immune responses • Abundance lower in IBD • Abundance lower in IBS; low levels also correlate with symptom severity in IBS • Lower levels seen in type 2 diabetes, pediatric allergy, and autism • Increased levels in obese subjects compared to lean/overweight; infants with lower Bifidobacterium may have increased risk for weight gain in childhood • Abundance decreases after weight loss and gastric-bypass surgery (source)

“Overall, both of these microbes seem to be major players in the gut-brain axis. John Cryan, a neuroscientist at the University College of Cork in Ireland, has examined the effects of both of them on depression in animals. In a 2010 paper published in Neuroscience, he gave mice either bifidobacterium or the antidepressant Lexapro; he then subjected them to a series of stressful situations, including a test which measured how long they continued to swim in a tank of water with no way out. (They were pulled out after a short period of time, before they drowned.) The microbe and the drug were both effective at increasing the animals’ perseverance, and reducing levels of hormones linked to stress. Another experiment, this time using lactobacillus, had similar results. Cryan is launching a study with humans (using measurements other than the forced swim test to gauge subjects’ response).” (source)

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