PPIs Diminish Gut Microbiome Diversity

“PPIs may limit the gut’s diversity by reducing its acidity and thus creating an environment that is more or less amenable to certain microbes. And that imbalance could then lead to infection, says Rinse Weersma, a gastroenterologist at the University of Groningen. The drugs may induce “a change in the microbiome that creates a niche where Salmonella or C. difficile can grow,” he explains.”

From Heartburn Meds Alter the Gut: Acid blockers reduce the diversity of bacteria in the intestines—and that could lead to trouble, published in Scientific American.

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Bacteroides fragilis

Bacteroides fragilis:

“The California Institute of Technology microbiologist Sarkis Mazmanian has focused on a common species called Bacteroides fragilis, which is seen in smaller quantities in some children with autism. In a paper published two years ago in the journal Cell, Mazmanian and several colleagues fed B. fragilis from humans to mice with symptoms similar to autism. The treatment altered the makeup of the animals’ microbiome, and more importantly, improved their behavior: They became less anxious, communicated more with other mice, and showed less repetitive behavior.” (source)

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Akkermansia muciniphila

Akkermansia muciniphila, the only currently known species within genus Akkermansia, can reside in the human intestinal tract and is currently being studied for its effects on human metabolism. Recently performed studies in rodents have indicated that Akkermansia muciniphila in the intestinal tract may mediate obesity, diabetes, and inflammation. (source)

Akkermansia muciniphila:

Dominant mucus-layer species; may represent 3-5% of microbial community in healthy adults • Abundance associated with higher bacterial gene richness in the gut • Plays role glucose homeostasis • Abundance inversely correlated with IBD (both Crohn’s and UC) and appendicitis • Abundance inversely correlates with body weight in pregnant women and children • Some have reported decreased A. muciniphila in pre-diabetes and decreased Verrocomicrobiae abundance in T2D and pre-diabetes • Lower in autism (source)

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